"Since the first edition published in 2015, the interest in numerical modeling of the emission of particulate material formed in flames is continuously growing. Along these lines, this second edition includes an additional Chapter on the modeling of sooting flames. The fundamentals driving the formation and the evolution (nucleation, growth, agglomeration, oxidation) of flowing non-inertial particles are first discussed, before presenting best practices for major soot modeling approaches in CFD of turbulent flames." - Dirk Roekaerts and Luc Vervisch March, 2020.
The aim of this Best Practice Guide (BPG) is to provide guidelines to CFD users in a wide range of application areas where combustion is an essential process. Since the first edition published in 2015, the interest in numerical modeling of the emission of particulate material formed in flames is continuously growing. For this reason, this second edition includes an new Chapter on the modeling of sooting flames.
Chapters 1-3 summarize key issues in turbulent combustion model formulation. Chapter 4 is addressing the validation of modelling using available experimental databases. In the new Chapter 5 the fundamentals driving the formation and the evolution (nucleation, growth, agglomeration, oxidation) of flowing non-inertial particles are discussed, before presenting best practices for major soot modeling approaches in CFD of turbulent flames.Then, two application areas are elaborated in separate chapters: Chapter 6 on Internal Combustion Engines, and Chapter 7 on Gas Turbines. Best practice guidelines by the nature of technology development are always temporary. New insights and approaches will take over after some time. Therefore this BPG ends with a Chapter 8 on Emerging Methods, providing a preview of approaches so far only useful for simulating canonical configurations or requiring further developments.
A comprehensive CFD approach to turbulent combustion modelling relies on appropriate submodels for flow turbulence, chemistry and radiation, and their interactions. In the framework of this BPG, knowledge of turbulent flow modeling is a pre-requisite and only briefly explained. Instead the discussion on models is divided in three parts:turbulence-chemistry interaction (Chapter 1), chemistry (Chapter 2) and radiative heat transfer (Chapter 3). Many of the models introduced in the first three chapters will reappear in the discussion in Chapters 4 to 6 and comments on challenges, advantages and disadvantages are formulated in all chapters.
Those looking for immediate advices to tackle a specific application may want to proceed immediately to the application chapters (IC engines in Chapter 5 and Gas Turbines in Chapter 6) and return to the basic chapters when necessary. But everyone not finding in these chapters an immediate answer to the basic question: ‘What is the best model for my specific application?’ should certainly spend some time on Chapter 4, because it addresses the mandatory preliminary steps that have to be considered to validate a simulation involving any sort of turbulent flames.
Pedro J. Coelho - Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Marco Mancini - Technische Universität Clausthal, Germany
Dirk J.E.M. Roekaerts - Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Friedrich Dinkelacker - Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany Andreas Kempf - Universität Duisburg-Essen,Germany
Guido Kuenne - Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany
Michael Pfitzner - Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany
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Computational Fluid Dynamics of Turbulent Combustion
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